TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Architecture

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In this blog, we will learn about the TCP/IP Protocol Suite and TCP/IP Model Architecture.

The Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP) is the transportation layer (layer 4 in the OSI Model) protocol which is responsible for link establishment and management.

TCP enables efficient data transmission between processes in computer software.

The OSI Model IP i.e. Layer 3 of the Internet Protocol is also known as the network layer protocol providing addressing, datagram routing, and other key network functions.

TCP/IP uses its own four-layer architecture which almost matches the OSI Reference Model. Its function is similar to that of the OSI Reference Model, i.e. to provide a framework for the different protocols that compose it.

Read OSI Model: Networking Layers, Grouping, ‘N’ Notation, PDUs & SDUs.

History and Development of TCP/IP

TCP/IP Design is what led to Internet startup. The Internet and the TCP / IP Model were almost developed together, and TCP/IP provided the mechanism for Internet implementation.

Let’s take a brief look at the History of the TCP/IP Model.

The TCP/IP protocol was originally developed as part of the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA, or ARPA) research network. This network was initially dubbed ARPAnet. As the ARPAnet grew and used for newer applications, network developers saw vulnerabilities in existing protocols.

In 1973, the pioneers of ARPAnet started working on a full-fledged internetworking protocol scheme. This latest technology was based on just one protocol called the Transmission Control Program, i.e. TCP earlier. Its First version was written in 1973, then revised and formally documented in RFC 675.

TCP’s testing and development took several years. Jon Postel, one of the developers of the Internet and TCP/IP, stated in August 1977 that reference models are not only for textbooks but also for practical implementation.

Postel then led to the TCP / IP Architecture concept. At the transport layer, TCP was implemented and at the network layer, the IP.

TCP/IP soon became the standard protocol set for running the ARPAnet, and soon it gave rise to the TCP/IP Internet.

TCP/IP Model

The TCP/IP Protocol Suite was created before the OSI Reference Model. Howerver TCP/IP Model is somewhat similar to the OSI Reference Model.

TCP/IP Model vs OSI Model

The OSI Model is split into seven layers while the TCP / IP Model is based primarily on four layers. The TCP / IP model does not deal with the physical layer. The next layers i.e. network interface, internet, and host-to-host transport correspond to the OSI Reference Model layer 2,3,4; The top three layers of the OSI layer are conceptually blurred by the TCP / IP Application layer.

TCP/IP Protocols Suite

Since TCP/IP is a suite of protocols, it is mostly discussed in terms of the protocols that compose it. That protocol resides within a specific layer of the above-described model of TCP/IP Architecture. The Protocols work together to allow the operation of TCP / IP as a whole.

Learn more about TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Architecture from Wikipedia.

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